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Erstes Kaiserreich ist eine von Historikern verwendete Bezeichnung für die Periode von 18und in der Geschichte Frankreichs. Der offizielle Staatsname war Französisches Kaiserreich. Erstes Kaiserreich (französisch Premier Empire) ist eine von Historikern verwendete Am April dankte Napoleon als Kaiser ab und ging nach Elba. Da die Bezeichnung Maréchal de France des Ancien Régime mit der Revolution abgeschafft worden war, wurde auf Veranlassung von Napoleon Bonaparte am. Get the best deals on Napoleon I., First Empire (), shop the largest numismatic marketplace at ""Jeder französische Soldat trägt einen Marschallstab in seinem Rucksack"" - Napoleon Bonaparte ☆Das erste MMO-Strategiespiel auf dem Handy, das auf der.

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zu ihrem Taufnamen noch den des Kaisers, Napoleon, hinzuzufügen. Corr., XI, No. 2 La Proclamalion de l'Empire, 3 La Proclamation de l'Empire. ""Jeder französische Soldat trägt einen Marschallstab in seinem Rucksack"" - Napoleon Bonaparte ☆Das erste MMO-Strategiespiel auf dem Handy, das auf der. Consulate, and the Empire of Napoleon ; Magnificent: Copies of the «Sacre et Couronnement de Napoleon ; " including the Princess Pauline ' s copy, proof. zu ihrem Taufnamen noch den des Kaisers, Napoleon, hinzuzufügen. Corr., XI, No. 2 La Proclamalion de l'Empire, 3 La Proclamation de l'Empire. Fighting Napoleon: Guerrillas, Bandits and Adventurers in Spain, – , Napoleon's Men: The Soldiers of the Revolution and Empire, London und New. Consulate, and the Empire of Napoleon ; Magnificent: Copies of the «Sacre et Couronnement de Napoleon ; " including the Princess Pauline ' s copy, proof. Aucun Etatj'xe'v * '5 7» * fera incorporé dans l'Empire, mais fe ne '- ' l ' k S'Iacrifiei'​ois pôintmçs droits etc. «' ‚ 4'. 4 ' x_ ç ' 7, -~ Und 'das TrÎ'bunat antwortete. Many translated example sentences containing "Napoleon Empire" – German-​English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Napoleon Empire Ihre Bedeutung blieb gering, da die meisten Regelungen durch Senatskonsulte oder Dekrete des Kaisers entschieden wurden. Die bisherige Methode, die Armee aus den Erzeugnissen des Landes zu versorgen, funktionierte nicht, da die Russen eine Politik der see more Erde betrieben. April sprach der Senat die Absetzung des Kaisers aus. April dankte Napoleon als Kaiser ab und ging nach Elba. Dies brachte Juden zum ersten Mal in einem europäischen Land bereits die Bürgerrechte. Einzig Napoleons Bruder Lucienmit dem er sich überworfen hatte, Napoleon Empire weitgehend leer aus. View item Hoehn DE. Es musste sich weiters an der click to see more Kontinentalsperre beteiligen, sein stehendes Heer auf Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult. So kam es nur zur Einberufung von Auch die Rechte des Tribunats selbst wurden immer mehr click. Mit einer nur schlecht ausgebildeten Armee, der es zudem an Kavallerie mangelte, marschierte Bonaparte nach Deutschland. Da auch Schweden sich an der Koalition beteiligte, standen nunmehr alle nicht von Napoleon I. Mai Helena im Südatlantik verbannt und das Kaiserreich wurde aufgelöst. Ihre Bedeutung blieb go here, da die meisten Regelungen durch Senatskonsulte oder Dekrete des Kaisers entschieden wurden.

In France, moreover, the Bourbon Restoration was soon exposed to criticism. Though in the majority of the French people were tired of the emperor, they had expressed no wish for the return of the Bourbons.

The apathy of April quickly gave way to mistrust. Old hatreds were revived, resistance organized, and conspiracies formed.

From Elba Napoleon kept a close watch on the Continent. He knew that some of the diplomats at Vienna , where a congress was deciding the fate of Europe, considered Elba, between Corsica and Italy , too close to France and to Italy and wanted to banish him to a distant island in the Atlantic.

Also he accused Austria of preventing Marie-Louise and his son from coming to join him in fact, she had taken a lover and had no intention of going to live with her husband.

All these considerations drove Napoleon to action. Decisive as ever, he returned to France like a thunderbolt.

On March 1, , he landed at Cannes with a detachment of his guard. As he crossed the Alps, the republican peasants rallied round him, and near Grenoble he won over the soldiers dispatched to arrest him.

On March 20 he was in Paris. Napoleon was brought back to power as the embodiment of the spirit of the Revolution rather than as the emperor who had fallen a year before.

To rally the mass of Frenchmen to his cause, he should have allied himself with the Jacobins , but this he dared not do.

Unable to escape from the bourgeoisie whose predominance he himself had assured and who feared above all else a revival of the radical experiments of and , he could only set up a political regime scarcely distinguishable from that of Louis XVIII.

Enthusiasm ebbed fast, and the Napoleonic adventure seemed a dead end. To oppose the allied troops massing on the frontiers, Napoleon mustered an army with which he marched into Belgium and defeated the Prussians at Ligny on June 16, A savage battle followed.

Napoleon was in sight of victory when the Prussians under Gebhard Blücher arrived to reinforce the British, and soon, despite the heroism of the Old Guard, Napoleon was defeated.

Back in Paris, the parliament forced Napoleon to abdicate; he did so, in favour of his son, on June 22, On July 3 he was at Rochefort , intending to take ship for the United States, but a British squadron prevented any French vessel from leaving the port.

Napoleon then decided to appeal to the British government for protection. His request granted, he boarded the Bellerophon on July The allies were agreed on one point: Napoleon was not to go back to Elba.

Nor did they like the idea of his going off to America. Great Britain had no choice but to send him to detention in a far-off island.

But in April France declared war against Austria , and his offense was forgiven. Apparently through patronage, Napoleon was promoted to the rank of captain but did not rejoin his regiment.

Instead he returned to Corsica in October , where Paoli was exercising dictatorial powers and preparing to separate Corsica from France.

Napoleon Bonaparte, as he may henceforth be called though the family did not drop the spelling Buonaparte until after , rejoined his regiment at Nice in June In his Le Souper de Beaucaire Supper at Beaucaire , written at this time, he argued vigorously for united action by all republicans rallied round the Jacobins, who were becoming progressively more radical, and the National Convention , the Revolutionary assembly that in the preceding fall had abolished the monarchy.

Bonaparte was promoted to major in September and adjutant general in October. He received a bayonet wound on December 16, but on the next day the British troops, harassed by his artillery, evacuated Toulon.

On December 22 Bonaparte, age 24, was promoted to brigadier general in recognition of his decisive part in the capture of the town.

He was freed in September but was not restored to his command. The post seemed to hold no future for him, and he went to Paris to justify himself.

Despite his efforts in Paris, Napoleon was unable to obtain a satisfactory command, because he was feared for his intense ambition and for his relations with the Montagnards , the more radical members of the National Convention.

He then considered offering his services to the sultan of Turkey. Napoleon I. Article Media. Info Print Print.

Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Helena The Napoleonic legend. Top Questions. French Revolution: Counterrevolution, regicide, and the Reign of Terror.

France: The French Revolution and Napoleon, — Read more below: The empire. Coup of 18—19 Brumaire. Napoleonic Code.

Concordat of Napoleonic Wars. Read more below: The empire: Downfall and abdication. Saint Helena.

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Fischer DE Dr. Alle Bürger sollten vor dem Gesetz gleich sein. Helena im Südatlantik verbannt und das Kaiserreich wurde aufgelöst. Mai Beide Kammern tagten hinter verschlossenen Türen. Das Land war zu weitläufig und die Wege zu schlecht für rasche Truppenbewegungen. Justice click fair and efficient under the Napoleonic Code and was administered by an honest, professional magistracy. Hazareesingh explores how Napoleon's article source and memory are best see more. The French suffered in the course of a ruinous retreat, including from the harshness of the Russian Winter. The French Revolution. Instead he returned to Corsica in Octoberwhere Paoli was exercising dictatorial powers and preparing to separate Corsica from France. July 2, Napoleon would have ruling elites from a fusion of the new bourgeoisie and the old aristocracy.

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Napoleon - French Military Leader & Emperor - Mini Bio - BIO In a series of rapid victories during the Montenotte Campaignhe knocked Piedmont out of the war in two weeks. How Far From Austerlitz? Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Then he laid siege to the Roman state and initiated the Concordat of to control the material claims of the pope. International Journal just click for source Sciences. Retrieved 6 December

Soon after, Napoleon had his brother, Joseph, crowned King of Spain and sent him there to take control. Napoleon tried to succeed in the Iberian Peninsula as he had done in Italy, in the Netherlands, and in Hesse.

After the Dos de Mayo riots and subsequent reprisals, the Spanish government began an effective guerrilla campaign, under the oversight of local Juntas.

Spain used up the soldiers needed for Napoleon's other fields of battle, and they had to be replaced by conscripts.

Spanish resistance affected Austria, and indicated the potential of national resistance. The provocations of Talleyrand and Britain strengthened the idea that the Austrians could emulate the Spanish.

On 10 April , Austria invaded France's ally, Bavaria. The campaign of , however, would not be nearly as long and troublesome for France as the one in Spain and Portugal.

Following a short and decisive action in Bavaria, Napoleon opened up the road to the Austrian capital of Vienna for a second time.

At Aspern , Napoleon suffered his first serious tactical defeat, along with the death of Jean Lannes , an able Marshal and dear friend of the emperor.

The victory at Wagram , however, forced Austria to sue for peace. The Treaty of Schönbrunn , signed on 14 December , resulted in the annexation of the Illyrian Provinces and recognized past French conquests.

The Pope was forcibly deported to Savona , and his domains were incorporated into the French Empire.

He gradually withdrew power from his siblings and concentrated his affection and ambition on his son, the guarantee of the continuance of his dynasty, marking the high point of the Empire.

Undermining forces, however, had already begun to impinge on the faults inherent in Napoleon's achievements. Britain, protected by the English Channel and its navy, was persistently active , and rebellion of both the governing and of the governed broke out everywhere.

Napoleon, though he underrated it, soon felt his failure in coping with the Peninsular War. The alliance arranged at Tilsit was seriously shaken by the Austrian marriage, the threat of Polish restoration to Russia, and the Continental System.

The very persons whom he had placed in power were counteracting his plans. With many of his siblings and relations performing unsuccessfully or even betraying him, Napoleon found himself obliged to revoke their power.

Caroline Bonaparte conspired against her brother and against her husband Murat; the hypochondriac Louis, now Dutch in his sympathies, found the supervision of the blockade taken from him, and also the defense of the Scheldt , which he had refused to ensure.

The very nature of things was against the new dynasties, as it had been against the old. After national insurrections and family recriminations came treachery from Napoleon's ministers.

Talleyrand betrayed his designs to Metternich and suffered dismissal. By consequence of the spirit of conquest Napoleon had aroused, many of his marshals and officials, having tasted victory, dreamed of sovereign power: Bernadotte , who had helped him to the Consulate , played Napoleon false to win the crown of Sweden.

Soult , like Murat, coveted the Spanish throne after that of Portugal, thus anticipating the treason of The country itself, though flattered by conquests, was tired of self-sacrifice.

The unpopularity of conscription gradually turned many of Napoleon's subjects against him. Amidst profound silence from the press and the assemblies, a protest was raised against imperial power by the literary world, against the excommunicated sovereign by Catholicism, and against the author of the continental blockade by the discontented bourgeoisie , ruined by the crisis of Even as he lost his military principles, Napoleon maintained his gift for brilliance.

His Six Days' Campaign , which took place at the very end of the War of the Sixth Coalition , is often regarded as his greatest display of leadership and military prowess.

But by then it was the end or "the finish" , and it was during the years before when the nations of Europe conspired against France.

While Napoleon and his holdings idled and worsened, the rest of Europe agreed to avenge the revolutionary events of Napoleon had hardly succeeded in putting down the revolt in Germany when the emperor of Russia himself headed a European insurrection against Napoleon.

To put an end to this, to ensure his own access to the Mediterranean and exclude his chief rival, Napoleon invaded Russia in Despite his victorious advance, the taking of Smolensk , the victory on the Moskva , and the entry into Moscow, he was defeated by the country and the climate, and by Alexander's refusal to make terms.

After this came the terrible retreat in the harsh Russian winter, while all of Europe was turning against him. Pushed back, as he had been in Spain, from bastion to bastion, after the action on the Berezina , Napoleon had to fall back upon the frontiers of , and then—having refused the peace offered to him by Austria at the Congress of Prague 4 June — 10 August , from fear of losing Italy, where each of his victories had marked a stage in the accomplishment of his dream—on those of , despite the victories at Lützen and Bautzen , and on those of after his disastrous defeat at Leipzig , when Bernadotte—now Crown Prince of Sweden—turned upon him, General Moreau also joined the Allies, and longstanding allied nations, such as Saxony and Bavaria, forsook him as well.

Following his retreat from Russia, Napoleon continued to retreat, this time from Germany. After the loss of Spain, reconquered by an Allied army led by Wellington , the uprising in the Netherlands preliminary to the invasion and the manifesto of Frankfurt 1 December [13] which proclaimed it, he was forced to fall back upon the frontiers of ; and was later driven further back upon those of —despite the brilliant campaign of against the invaders.

Paris capitulated on 30 March , and the Delenda Carthago , pronounced against Britain, was spoken of Napoleon.

The Empire briefly fell with Napoleon's abdication at Fontainebleau on 11 April After less than a year's exile on the island of Elba , Napoleon escaped to France with a thousand men and four cannons.

Upon meeting Ney's army, Napoleon dismounted and walked into firing range, saying "If one of you wishes to kill his emperor, here I am!

However, he was defeated by the Seventh Coalition at the Battle of Waterloo. He surrendered himself to the British and was exiled to Saint Helena , a remote island in the South Atlantic, where he remained until his death in Napoleon gained support by appealing to some common concerns of the French people.

Napoleon attracted power and imperial status and gathered support for his changes of French institutions, such as the Concordat of which confirmed the Catholic Church as the majority church of France and restored some of its civil status.

Napoleon by this time, however, thought himself more of an enlightened despot. He preserved numerous social gains of the Revolution while suppressing political liberty.

He admired efficiency and strength and hated feudalism, religious intolerance, and civil inequality. Although a supporter of the radical Jacobins during the early days of the Revolution out of pragmatism, Napoleon became increasingly autocratic as his political career progressed, and once in power embraced certain aspects of both liberalism and authoritarianism—for example, public education , a generally liberal restructuring of the French legal system , and the emancipation of the Jews—while rejecting electoral democracy and freedom of the press.

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To withstand the stress he became domineering, eventually developing an inferiority complex. George F. He could rapidly dictate a series of complex commands to his subordinates, keeping in mind where major units were expected to be at each future point, and like a chess master, "seeing" the best plays moves ahead.

Napoleon maintained strict, efficient work habits, prioritizing what needed to be done. He cheated at cards, but repaid the losses; he had to win at everything he attempted.

Unlike many generals, Napoleon did not examine history to ask what Hannibal or Alexander or anyone else did in a similar situation.

Critics said he won many battles simply because of luck; Napoleon responded, "Give me lucky generals", arguing that "luck" comes to leaders who recognize opportunity, and seize it.

In terms of influence on events, it was more than Napoleon's personality that took effect. He reorganized France itself to supply the men and money needed for wars.

At the Battle of Auerstadt in , King Frederick William III of Prussia outnumbered the French by 63, to 27,; however, when he was told, mistakenly, that Napoleon was in command, he ordered a hasty retreat that turned into a rout.

Napoleon has become a worldwide cultural icon who symbolizes military genius and political power. Martin van Creveld described him as "the most competent human being who ever lived".

He has been portrayed in hundreds of films and discussed in hundreds of thousands of books and articles.

When met in person, many of his contemporaries were surprised by his apparently unremarkable physical appearance in contrast to his significant deeds and reputation, especially in his youth, when he was consistently described as small and thin.

Joseph Farington, who observed Napoleon personally in , commented that "Samuel Rogers stood a little way from me and Denis Davydov met him personally and considered him remarkably average in appearance: "His face was slightly swarthy, with regular features.

His nose was not very large, but straight, with a slight, hardly noticeable bend. The hair on his head was dark reddish-blond; his eyebrows and eyelashes were much darker than the colour of his hair, and his blue eyes, set off by the almost black lashes, gave him a most pleasing expression The man I saw was of short stature, just over five feet tall, rather heavy although he was only 37 years old.

During the Napoleonic Wars he was taken seriously by the British press as a dangerous tyrant , poised to invade. Napoleon was mocked in British newspapers as a short tempered small man and he was nicknamed "Little Boney in a strong fit".

It is more likely that he was 1. Helena a British island , since he would have most likely been measured with an English yardstick rather than a yardstick of the Old French Regime.

He also habitually wore usually on Sundays the blue uniform of a colonel of the Imperial Guard Foot Grenadiers blue with white facings and red cuffs.

This was in contrast to the complex uniforms with many decorations of his marshals and those around him.

In his later years he gained quite a bit of weight and had a complexion considered pale or sallow, something contemporaries took note of.

Novelist Paul de Kock, who saw him in on the balcony of the Tuileries, called Napoleon "yellow, obese, and bloated". He is fat, rather what we call pot-bellied, and although his leg is well shaped, it is rather clumsy He is very sallow, with light grey eyes, and rather thin, greasy-looking brown hair, and altogether a very nasty, priestlike-looking fellow.

He is often portrayed wearing a large bicorne hat with a hand-in-waistcoat gesture—a reference to the painting produced in by Jacques-Louis David.

Napoleon instituted various reforms, such as higher education, a tax code , road and sewer systems, and established the Banque de France , the first central bank in French history.

He negotiated the Concordat of with the Catholic Church, which sought to reconcile the mostly Catholic population to his regime.

It was presented alongside the Organic Articles , which regulated public worship in France. In May , he instituted the Legion of Honour , a substitute for the old royalist decorations and orders of chivalry , to encourage civilian and military achievements; the order is still the highest decoration in France.

Napoleon participated actively in the sessions of the Council of State that revised the drafts. The development of the code was a fundamental change in the nature of the civil law legal system with its stress on clearly written and accessible law.

Other codes " Les cinq codes " were commissioned by Napoleon to codify criminal and commerce law; a Code of Criminal Instruction was published, which enacted rules of due process.

The Napoleonic code was adopted throughout much of Continental Europe, though only in the lands he conquered, and remained in force after Napoleon's defeat.

Napoleon said: "My true glory is not to have won forty battles Waterloo will erase the memory of so many victories.

Dieter Langewiesche described the code as a "revolutionary project" which spurred the development of bourgeois society in Germany by the extension of the right to own property and an acceleration towards the end of feudalism.

Napoleon reorganized what had been the Holy Roman Empire, made up of more than a thousand entities, [ quantify ] into a more streamlined forty-state Confederation of the Rhine ; this helped promote the German Confederation and the unification of Germany in The movement toward national unification in Italy was similarly precipitated by Napoleonic rule.

Napoleon implemented a wide array of liberal reforms in France and across Continental Europe, especially in Italy and Germany, as summarized by British historian Andrew Roberts :.

The ideas that underpin our modern world—meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, and so on—were championed, consolidated, codified and geographically extended by Napoleon.

To them he added a rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire.

Napoleon directly overthrew remnants of feudalism in much of western Continental Europe. He liberalized property laws , ended seigneurial dues , abolished the guild of merchants and craftsmen to facilitate entrepreneurship, legalized divorce, closed the Jewish ghettos and made Jews equal to everyone else.

The Inquisition ended as did the Holy Roman Empire. The power of church courts and religious authority was sharply reduced and equality under the law was proclaimed for all men.

In the field of military organization , Napoleon borrowed from previous theorists such as Jacques Antoine Hippolyte, Comte de Guibert , and from the reforms of preceding French governments, and then developed much of what was already in place.

He continued the policy, which emerged from the Revolution, of promotion based primarily on merit. Corps replaced divisions as the largest army units, mobile artillery was integrated into reserve batteries, the staff system became more fluid and cavalry returned as an important formation in French military doctrine.

These methods are now referred to as essential features of Napoleonic warfare. His opponents learned from Napoleon's innovations. The increased importance of artillery after stemmed from his creation of a highly mobile artillery force, the growth in artillery numbers, and changes in artillery practices.

As a result of these factors, Napoleon, rather than relying on infantry to wear away the enemy's defences, now could use massed artillery as a spearhead to pound a break in the enemy's line that was then exploited by supporting infantry and cavalry.

McConachy rejects the alternative theory that growing reliance on artillery by the French army beginning in was an outgrowth of the declining quality of the French infantry and, later, France's inferiority in cavalry numbers.

Napoleon's biggest influence was in the conduct of warfare. Antoine-Henri Jomini explained Napoleon's methods in a widely used textbook that influenced all European and American armies.

Under Napoleon, a new emphasis towards the destruction, not just outmanoeuvring, of enemy armies emerged.

Invasions of enemy territory occurred over broader fronts which made wars costlier and more decisive.

The political effect of war increased; defeat for a European power meant more than the loss of isolated enclaves.

Near- Carthaginian peaces intertwined whole national efforts, intensifying the Revolutionary phenomenon of total war.

The official introduction of the metric system in September was unpopular in large sections of French society. Napoleon's rule greatly aided adoption of the new standard not only across France but also across the French sphere of influence.

Napoleon's educational reforms laid the foundation of a modern system of education in France and throughout much of Europe.

He made French the only official language. He left some primary education in the hands of religious orders, but he offered public support to secondary education.

All students were taught the sciences along with modern and classical languages. Napoleon hoped to use religion to produce social stability.

In the political realm, historians debate whether Napoleon was "an enlightened despot who laid the foundations of modern Europe" or "a megalomaniac who wrought greater misery than any man before the coming of Hitler".

The Continental powers as late as were willing to give him nearly all of his gains and titles, but some scholars maintain he was overly aggressive and pushed for too much, until his empire collapsed.

Napoleon ended lawlessness and disorder in post-Revolutionary France. His role in the Haitian Revolution and decision to reinstate slavery in France's overseas colonies are controversial and affect his reputation.

Napoleon institutionalized plunder of conquered territories: French museums contain art stolen by Napoleon's forces from across Europe.

Chandler , a historian of Napoleonic warfare, wrote in that, "Nothing could be more degrading to the former [Napoleon] and more flattering to the latter [Hitler].

The comparison is odious. On the whole Napoleon was inspired by a noble dream, wholly dissimilar from Hitler's Napoleon left great and lasting testimonies to his genius—in codes of law and national identities which survive to the present day.

Adolf Hitler left nothing but destruction. Critics argue Napoleon's true legacy must reflect the loss of status for France and needless deaths brought by his rule: historian Victor Davis Hanson writes, "After all, the military record is unquestioned—17 years of wars, perhaps six million Europeans dead , France bankrupt, her overseas colonies lost.

British military historian Correlli Barnett calls him "a social misfit" who exploited France for his personal megalomaniac goals.

He says Napoleon's reputation is exaggerated. Many historians have blamed Napoleon's poor planning, but Russian scholars instead emphasize the Russian response, noting the notorious winter weather was just as hard on the defenders.

The large and growing historiography in French, English, Russian, Spanish and other languages has been summarized and evaluated by numerous scholars.

Strict censorship, controlling aspects of the press, books, theatre, and art, was part of his propaganda scheme, aimed at portraying him as bringing desperately wanted peace and stability to France.

The propagandistic rhetoric changed in relation to events and to the atmosphere of Napoleon's reign, focusing first on his role as a general in the army and identification as a soldier, and moving to his role as emperor and a civil leader.

Specifically targeting his civilian audience, Napoleon fostered a relationship with the contemporary art community, taking an active role in commissioning and controlling different forms of art production to suit his propaganda goals.

In England, Russia and across Europe—though not in France—Napoleon was a popular topic of caricature. Hazareesingh explores how Napoleon's image and memory are best understood.

They played a key role in collective political defiance of the Bourbon restoration monarchy in — People from different walks of life and areas of France, particularly Napoleonic veterans, drew on the Napoleonic legacy and its connections with the ideals of the revolution.

Widespread rumours of Napoleon's return from St. Helena and Napoleon as an inspiration for patriotism, individual and collective liberties, and political mobilization manifested themselves in seditious materials, displaying the tricolor and rosettes.

There were also subversive activities celebrating anniversaries of Napoleon's life and reign and disrupting royal celebrations—they demonstrated the prevailing and successful goal of the varied supporters of Napoleon to constantly destabilize the Bourbon regime.

Datta shows that, following the collapse of militaristic Boulangism in the late s, the Napoleonic legend was divorced from party politics and revived in popular culture.

Reduced to a minor character, the new fictional Napoleon became not a world historical figure but an intimate one, fashioned by individuals' needs and consumed as popular entertainment.

In their attempts to represent the emperor as a figure of national unity, proponents and detractors of the Third Republic used the legend as a vehicle for exploring anxieties about gender and fears about the processes of democratization that accompanied this new era of mass politics and culture.

International Napoleonic Congresses take place regularly, with participation by members of the French and American military, French politicians and scholars from different countries.

Bonaparte Crossing the Alps , realist version by Paul Delaroche in Napoleon was responsible for spreading the values of the French Revolution to other countries, especially in legal reform and the abolition of serfdom.

After the fall of Napoleon, not only was the Napoleonic Code retained by conquered countries including the Netherlands, Belgium, parts of Italy and Germany, but has been used as the basis of certain parts of law outside Europe including the Dominican Republic, the US state of Louisiana and the Canadian province of Quebec.

Napoleon could be considered one of the founders of modern Germany. After dissolving the Holy Roman Empire , he reduced the number of German states from to less than 50, prior to German Unification.

A byproduct of the French occupation was a strong development in German nationalism. Napoleon also significantly aided the United States when he agreed to sell the territory of Louisiana for 15 million dollars during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson.

That territory almost doubled the size of the United States, adding the equivalent of 13 states to the Union.

Bonaparte often sent her love letters while on his campaigns. She became known as "Cleopatra". Despite his divorce from Josephine, Napoleon showed his dedication to her for the rest of his life.

When he heard the news of her death while on exile in Elba, he locked himself in his room and would not come out for two full days.

Thus he had married into a German royal and imperial family. Her great-aunt had been executed in France, while Napoleon had fought numerous campaigns against Austria all throughout his military career.

However, she seemed to warm up to him over time. After her wedding, she wrote to her father: "He loves me very much.

I respond to his love sincerely. There is something very fetching and very eager about him that is impossible to resist".

Napoleon and Marie Louise remained married until his death, though she did not join him in exile on Elba and thereafter never saw her husband again.

He became Napoleon II in and reigned for only two weeks. He was awarded the title of the Duke of Reichstadt in and died of tuberculosis aged 21, with no children.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about Napoleon I. For other uses, see Napoleon disambiguation. For other uses, see Napoleon Bonaparte disambiguation.

Emperor of the French. Les Invalides , Paris , France. Marie Louise of Austria m. Main article: Siege of Toulon.

Main article: Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars. Main article: French campaign in Egypt and Syria.

Main articles: 18 Brumaire and Napoleonic era. See also: Haitian Revolution. Main article: First French Empire.

Main article: War of the Third Coalition. Main articles: Franco-Ottoman alliance and Franco-Persian alliance. Main article: War of the Fourth Coalition.

Main article: Peninsular War. Main article: War of the Fifth Coalition. French Empire. French satellite states. Main article: French invasion of Russia.

Main article: War of the Sixth Coalition. Main article: Hundred Days. Further information: Death mask of Napoleon and Retour des cendres.

Further information: Napoleon and the Catholic Church. Further information: Concordat of Further information: Napoleon and the Jews and Napoleon and Protestants.

Further information: Cultural depictions of Napoleon. Main article: Napoleonic Code. Further information: Napoleonic weaponry and warfare and Military career of Napoleon Bonaparte.

Main articles: History of the metric system , Mesures usuelles , and Units of measurement in France. Main article: Napoleonic propaganda.

Main article: Influence of the French Revolution. Main article: Titles and styles of Napoleon.

He is less realistically portrayed on a charger in the latter work. At least four genuine death masks of Napoleon are known to exist: one in The Cabildo in New Orleans, one in a Liverpool museum, another in Havana and one in the library of the University of North Carolina.

This and other more minor attacks have led historians to debate whether he had epilepsy and, if so, to what extent.

Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Napoleon: A Life. Penguin Group, , Introduction. Reader's Guide to Military History.

Archived from the original on 22 October Harvard University Press. Archived from the original on 1 July Retrieved 23 January Encyclopedia Britannica.

Archived from the original on 12 January Archived from the original on 30 July Retrieved 16 February Archived from the original on 28 November Archived from the original on 25 February French Historical Studies.

Napoleon and Russia. Wikisource in French. Paris: French National Convention. Retrieved 16 January Napoleon: A Biographical Companion.

III, book 3. Archived from the original on 20 March A Brief History of Europe from — August referendum napoleon.

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However, French interests, unlike specific territorial claims, did not end at the nation's "natural frontiers. In Napoleon created the Cispadane later the Cisalpine Republic in northern Italy, with himself as its president.

Creation of the Helvetic Republic in present-day Switzerland followed one year later. In and in southern Italy, occupying French armies set up the Roman and Parthenopean republics over the Papal States and the mainland parts of the Kingdom of Naples , respectively.

This amounted to a state system controlled by the French Republic, the resources of the system ruthlessly plundered for the war effort.

A series of military reversals in and shattered this proto-empire. By spring all of Italy and most of Germany and the Low Countries had been lost, and the French were momentarily thrown back to their own borders.

Napoleon was brought to power by a clique of republican politicians in , in no small part to reestablish French hegemony beyond the pre borders.

Thus, Napoleon began his own career as an imperialist in the service of the French Republic and the radical ideology that had fostered expansionist ambitions.

From the outset, Napoleon's political survival depended on the reestablishment of the republic's empire. He achieved this in a series of well-coordinated military campaigns in and By , a general peace had been concluded with all the major powers, culminating in the Treaty of Amiens with Britain in March Although Britain and France were at war by , Napoleon did not attack the Continental powers until , allowing him to consolidate his rule not just in France itself, but in northern and central Italy and the Low Countries as well.

At this stage, Napoleon did not attempt to stretch French satellite states as far afield as previous regimes.

Venice lost her independence not to the Cisalpine sister republic, but to Austria, in a piece of diplomacy that, however treacherous to the Venetians, seemed to spell a halt to French expansion driven by Revolutionary ideology.

Napoleon's ambitions lay elsewhere, however. The results of his policy of expansion by diplomacy, rather than military aggression, proved among his most seminal schemes, if also rare for their reciprocity.

In a series of maneuvers, begun at the Congress of Rastatt as early as , and concluded in , Napoleon engineered a fundamental territorial reorganization of Germany.

He achieved this in partnership with the rulers of the middle-sized states of western and southern Germany, giving French backing to their own territorial ambitions.

Together, they forced Francis II , the Holy Roman emperor and ruler of Austria, to let them absorb a myriad of tiny polities into their states, whose only protection had been the emperor.

In this way, Napoleon both aggrandized and bound to him the rulers of the southwestern German states of Bavaria, Baden, Würtemberg, Hesse-Darmstadt, and Nassau.

This relationship was consolidated formally after his defeat of Austria and Russia in , when Napoleon bound these states together into the Confederation of the Rhine , with himself as its protector.

The Napoleonic Empire was now a complex power bloc engulfing most of western and southern Europe, as much as an imperial mass, in the conventional sense.

It was a hegemony, exercised through three different methods. The Revolutionary conquests were restored: the left bank of the Rhine, modern Belgium, and northwestern Italy were reannexed directly to France; satellite states were recreated in the Netherlands and north-central Italy; and western Germany east of the Rhine was now composed of the expanded, closely allied states of the Confederation of the Rhine.

Beneath this complex grouping of territories, a deeper uniformity emerged, however, that belied the variegated bonds that tied them to Napoleon.

All the states within the Napoleonic orbit by became deeply imbued with core French institutions, either by their direct imposition in the annexed departments, by imposed if indirect control in the newly created satellite states, or through free but conscious imitation in the Confederation of the Rhine.

In the period from to , all these territories saw the emergence and embedding of the key, defining institutions of the modern European state: the Napoleonic Code, which guaranteed open trials and equality before the law, and the centralized state based on prefects—civil servants appointed by the central government—and departments, the units they administered.

Everywhere, local laws, weights and measures , currency, and administrative structures were replaced by those developed in France after This also entailed the abolition of the vestiges of feudalism, and of provincial and noble privileges, and the confiscation of the properties of the church.

To be part of the Napoleonic hegemony meant absorbing a uniform, standardized political system; the foundations of the old order were swept away in every area the French took under their definitive control.

These diversely controlled states and regions became an "inner empire," the true core of Napoleonic power.

Here, French public institutions and legal and administrative practices took root; the local elites saw their advantages and found they reflected earlier, indigenous currents of reform, especially in the German states and northern Italy, those areas most influenced by the dynamic Holy Roman emperor Joseph II , in the s.

This was a crucial phase for the future development of western Europe. The net result of these reforms was to increase state power, the need for which became pressing when war resumed on the continent after The satellite states and those within the Confederation of the Rhine now had to pay for Napoleonic protection from the interests of the old order, which threatened to unseat the rulers of the former and undo the territorial gains of the latter.

Napoleon imposed heavy conscription and taxation on all the lands of the inner empire, inside and outside France, from onward.

Indeed, the contemporary test of the effectiveness of French rule, within the imperial departments, and of French-inspired reforms, in the allied states, became the ability to raise troops and revenue.

If these material demands could be met, the state was viable and efficient. This process was enforced by the creation of the gendarmerie, a paramilitary police force mainly devoted to patrolling the countryside.

Through it, mass conscription and heavy taxation were imposed on peasantries for whom central authority had been a mere shadow before Napoleonic rule.

Even in the more stable period of peace, to , the arrival of the new state came as a traumatic shock. If institutions such as the prefectoral administrative system and the Napoleonic Code marked the importance of the new regime for the elites and propertied classes, conscription—"the blood tax"—and the presence of a police force were its clearest signs for the popular classes in the countryside.

Napoleonic hegemony was punctuated by rural revolt everywhere, even in its supposed heartland, but the effectiveness of the state, its new and highly evolved coercive power, ensured that such recalcitrance remained atomized and short lived, if persistent.

Northern and central Italy saw widespread, if localized, peasant revolts; rural parts of the Rhineland were plunged from very traditional forms of local justice and government, based on arbitration, for example.

Independently, the German princes met similar opposition within their own borders. Some aspects of Napoleonic rule, such as the religious settlement, were never really accepted outside France, where the Concordat of was regarded as an assault upon a vibrant, popular Catholic faith.

Whereas in France the Concordat was seen, initially at least, as a restoration of normalcy after the rabid anticlericalism of the s, even sectors of the non-French elite saw it as an assault on their culture.

The inner empire was never a popular, or populist, construct. Nor did the western European experience of the new Napoleonic state include meaningful, representative, parliamentary government.

This was an aspect of the Revolution Napoleon did not export. Nevertheless, the propertied classes, which also included much of the peasantry, benefited from improved policing, particularly the extirpation of brigandage.

Justice proved fair and efficient under the Napoleonic Code and was administered by an honest, professional magistracy.

The equitable reparation and administration of property taxes was achieved by the compilation of accurate land registers, the cadastres, although indirect taxes soared under Napoleon.

Offizielles Sprachrohr des Kaisers und des Staates war der Moniteur. Strauss DE Dr. Während das Tribunat das Recht zur Gesetzesberatung learn more here nicht zur Abstimmung hatte, war die gesetzgebende Körperschaft nicht befugt zu debattieren, sondern konnte nur noch abstimmen. Im Jahr wurden Von den 60 Millionen Einwohnern behielt der Read more trotz der Französischen Revolution sein hohes Sozialprestige und konnte unter Napoleon learn more here seine dominante Rolle beim Militär, in der Diplomatie und der höheren Zivilverwaltung behaupten. Im Frieden von Schönbrunn musste Österreich daraufhin auf DalmatienZentralkroatiendie Kraindas KüstenlandSalzburg und das Innviertel verzichten, womit es etwa die Hälfte seiner Erbländer verlor und beinahe aus den alten römisch-deutschen Reichgrenzen hinausdrängt wurde. Allerdings führte der Versuch Napoleons, die Sklaverei Napoleon Empire einzuführen, zum Aufstand und zum Verlust der gesamten Insel. Das Land erhielt die von den Engländern besetzten Kolonien Fast F Perpignan, Napoleon I. Im August wurde der König, der im Verdacht stand, mit den Gegnern Frankreichs zu konspirieren, gestürzt und am Ziel war es, Frankreich auf die Grenzen von zurückzuwerfen.